Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. The efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models has been extensively studied. This review discusses the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.